Independent Research Fellowships


Part 1 is here , part 2 is here. You can donate to Way Out Arts here. Patricia provided the pancakes on the veranda, and by 8. As in many tropical cities, the drive to higher ground brought cooler, cleaner air and bigger houses. The sun was already starting its daily onslaught, but the radio offices were an air-conditioned sanctuary. Jamie, Gibo and I spent an easy 45 minutes chatting about the charity and their work, and my impressions so far of the country. I played a song, signed the wall, took some photos, and we were on our way.


Were Darwin’s Galapagos Finches Evolution? What does happen in a population as the genome reacts to the environment? Darwin looks at the finches on the Galapagos Islands and notices variations in beak size. He thought that the harder seed in the dry time was causing the beaks of the finches to grow stouter from the use of the part. But what was happening was that natural selection or a long term drought in the islands was causing the seed cases to harden.

The heavier beaked finch allele in the genome was favored and the lighter beaked finch allele was not.

Earth sciences – Radiometric dating: In , shortly after the discovery of radioactivity, the American chemist Bertram Boltwood suggested that lead is one of the disintegration products of uranium, in which case the older a uranium-bearing mineral the greater should be its proportional part of lead. Analyzing specimens whose relative geologic ages were known, Boltwood found that the ratio of.

Red horse head, below and to the left of the yellow horse heads. These horse heads and signs are in a small alcove, above a flat floor. Just a few lines have been used to outline more clearly the shape of a small mammoth, about 20 cm wide, taken up by the flowstone or stalagmite cascade at the entrance to the Brunel Chamber. I have highlighted the shape in the right hand photograph. The zone is heavily covered with calcite.

It is not possible to determine whether the front of this animal existed at one time. Length ca 40 cm. I had noticed in several images that the artist s used natural irregularities in the surfaces to emphasize a three-dimensional appearance. I wonder if some of the odd placements of the figures is because the artist saw something to add to the realism of his picture. So when I saw the ‘headless’ ibex, I immediately thought that the other side of the crevice suggested the head.

Then I saw that the crevice itself forms the line of the shoulder completed by a short line of red and the front legs where it splits into an inverted Y. One leg is fairly straight and is paralleled by the drawn hind leg. The other front leg is raised and curled in a prancing mid-step, complete with cloven hoof small inverted V. Just below the raised leg I think I see faint red ochre smudging that has washed down and away.

Chauvet Cave

January Fossils provide a record of the history of life. Smith is known as the Father of English Geology. Our understanding of the shape and pattern of the history of life depends on the accuracy of fossils and dating methods. Some critics, particularly religious fundamentalists, argue that neither fossils nor dating can be trusted, and that their interpretations are better.

Articles home page Creation vs. Evolution 0. Introduction and table of contents The following is an organized presentation on the creation vs. evolution controversy.

Close up of the grattoir on the bottom right of the image above. Don Hitchcock Source: Adapted from information from Katzman PC. My thanks as always. Wikipedia Bone tools from l’abri Castanet I. Wikipedia The elements of jewellery, abundant from this age on, are often produced in series, as at l’abri Castanet. Suspended objects are the most numerous, supplemented by headbands and bracelets.

Daily Life

Many Christians today believe as an article of faith that the Bible teaches the earth was created 6, years ago. They dispute all the evidence of geology, paleontology and radiometric dating techniques. They argue that such evidence is invalid, grossly misunderstood, and misinterpreted. Some Neo-Creationists claim that all the earth’s strata was due to the Noachian deluge, or the original process of Creation. They claim all Creation took place during a six day period approximately 6, years ago.

What is the truth?

Chesil Beach or Chesil Bank – Bibliography and References. Adlam, W.J. The origin and source of the features of Chesil Beach, Dorset. Southern Geographer, 2, 1.

Radiometric dating In , shortly after the discovery of radioactivity , the American chemist Bertram Boltwood suggested that lead is one of the disintegration products of uranium, in which case the older a uranium-bearing mineral the greater should be its proportional part of lead. Analyzing specimens whose relative geologic ages were known, Boltwood found that the ratio of lead to uranium did indeed increase with age.

After estimating the rate of this radioactive change, he calculated that the absolute ages of his specimens ranged from million to 2. Though his figures were too high by about 20 percent, their order of magnitude was enough to dispose of the short scale of geologic time proposed by Lord Kelvin. Versions of the modern mass spectrometer were invented in the early s and s, and during World War II the device was improved substantially to help in the development of the atomic bomb.

Soon after the war, Harold C. Wasserburg applied the mass spectrometer to the study of geochronology. This device separates the different isotopes of the same element and can measure the variations in these isotopic abundances to within one part in 10, By determining the amount of the parent and daughter isotopes present in a sample and by knowing their rate of radioactive decay each radioisotope has its own decay constant , the isotopic age of the sample can be calculated.

For dating minerals and rocks, investigators commonly use the following couplets of parent and daughter isotopes: The SHRIMP Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe enables the accurate determination of the uranium-lead age of the mineral zircon, and this has revolutionized the understanding of the isotopic age of formation of zircon-bearing igneous granitic rocks.


Carbon and Recent Creation: Various data and numerical statistics are discussed. Properly understood, these data render C dating techniques relatively reliable only within a few thousand years before present and point to a recent creation.

To view all courses (opens new window) AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY G – 3 Units Course Outline (opens new window) Introduction to Automotive Technology This course is designed to teach the student about the operation and maintenance of modern automobiles.

There are lots of ways to guesstimate ages, and geologists knew the earth was old a long time ago and I might add that they were mostly Christian creationist geologists. But they didn’t know how old. Radiometric dating actually allows the measurement of absolute ages, and so it is deadly to the argument that the earth cannot be more than 10, years old. Radiometric methods measure the time elapsed since the particular radiometric clock was reset.

Radiocarbon dating, which is probably best known in the general public, works only on things that were once alive and are now dead. It measures the time elapsed since death, but is limited in scale to no more than about 50, years ago. Generally applied to igneous rocks those of volcanic origin , they measure the time since the molten rock solidified.

Castel-Merle – Vallon des Roches

The origin and source of the features of Chesil Beach, Dorset. Southern Geographer, 2, Position Papers and Research Statements. Weymouth and Portland Roads, with sections of the Chesil Beach. Surveyed by Commander W. Bill of Portland to Abbotsbury.

El Castillo cave art (c, BCE) The red disk below the hand stencils is the world’s oldest painting. Lion-Man of Hohlenstein Stadel World’s oldest figurative carving.

A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation for example, the large muscles of a weightlifter. Any heritable characteristic of an organism that improves its ability to survive and reproduce in its environment. Also used to describe the process of genetic change within a population, as influenced by natural selection.

A graph of the average fitness of a population in relation to the frequencies of genotypes in it. Peaks on the landscape correspond to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is high, valleys to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is low. Also called a fitness surface. A behavior has adaptive logic if it tends to increase the number of offspring that an individual contributes to the next and following generations. If such a behavior is even partly genetically determined, it will tend to become widespread in the population.

Then, even if circumstances change such that it no longer provides any survival or reproductive advantage, the behavior will still tend to be exhibited — unless it becomes positively disadvantageous in the new environment. The diversification, over evolutionary time, of a species or group of species into several different species or subspecies that are typically adapted to different ecological niches for example, Darwin’s finches.

Social Science History: Time line for the history of society, science and social science

Primary source references As a preface to this document, I want to point out that it is a shame that we have to continue to refute the same arguments that evolutionists keep bringing up over and over again in their attempts to argue against the fact of creation, which fact has been well established since the day the earth was created ex nihilo several thousand years ago. It is also a shame that the masses have bought all this based on some circular reasoning about fossils, where fossils tend to be found buried, similarities between various life forms, the presence of certain decay products in rocks, and other inherently speculative arguments about the past, based on phenomena that exist in the present.

If I hope to accomplish anything, it will be to simply encourage critical thinking.

Stratigraphy is a branch of geology concerned with the study of rock layers and layering (stratification).It is primarily used in the study of sedimentary and layered volcanic graphy has two related subfields: lithostratigraphy (lithologic stratigraphy) and biostratigraphy (biologic stratigraphy).

The lithostratigraphy of the latest Triassic to earliest Cretaceous of the English Channel and its adjacent areas. Published by the Geological Society of London. It is a substantial paper 61 pages long with 26 diagrams. It is very good with much information, including facies and thickness maps, diagrams showing sea-level changes etc. It is easily readable by anyone who already knows the general geological succession and zonal schemes of the Dorset Coast.

Ainsworth, William Braham, F. The stratigraphy of the latest Triassic through to the earliest Cretaceous of the Portland – Wight Basin and its adjacent area may be subdivided using petrophysical gamma ray and interval transit time criteria, in association with gross lithology to allow a total of 50 lithological units to be recognised. Three units occur within the latest Triassic, 46 in the Jurassic and one in the earliest Cretaceous. The lithostratigraphy can be integrated into a biostratigraphic template using published data and subsequent observations based on micropalaontology ostracods, foraminiferids and palynology dinocysts, miospores.

Throughout the study area recognition of major lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic events enables the chronostratigraphic framework of the basin to be determined, which has aided identification of regional stratigraphic breaks throughout much of the Portland – Wight Basin, including haiti in proximity to the Pliensbachian – Toarcian and the Aalenian – Bajocian boundaries, and also within the late Oxfordian.

Although the majority of the lithostratigraphic events have been deduced to be isochronous, a number of lithological units exhibit significant diachroniety. Operating experience with ESP’s and permanent downhole flowmeters in Wytch Farm from extended-reach wells. Journal of Petroleum Technology, 47,

Relative/Absolute Dating

Hello! Do you need to find a partner for sex? It is easy! Click here, free registration!